With the holidays just around the corner, employers are busy planning their company-wide charitable initiatives. To support their employees’ commitment to community welfare, many employers match employee donations to charitable or educational institutions and publicize volunteer opportunities. Some organizations, however, are making a shift to a new way of corporate giving that percolates from the bottom up: encouraging employees to “get involved” through contributions of time and talent.
More companies are creating Employee Volunteer Programs (EVP), continuous, managed efforts that allow employees the opportunity for hands-on service to the community. Employer programs are varied and innovative. Companies frequently contribute by getting the word out through community outreach that pairs organizations with employee volunteers who have particular skill sets and interests. While some employers provide paid time off for employees who volunteer, others simply permit employees to volunteer during working hours or facilitate participation in charitable enterprises during non-working hours. This kind of volunteerism has many proven benefits including increasing employee satisfaction, enhancing community perceptions of the employer and providing tangible benefits to the larger community.
Despite good intentions, these “good deeds” come with the risk of liability under the Fair Labor Standards Act (“FLSA”) if not properly managed. The FLSA is the federal law that governs the calculation and payment of wages. In some instances, time spent by employees in charitable activities may be considered as compensable time under the FLSA, requiring the employer to pay wages and even overtime to employees for time spent volunteering.
The FLSA does not require employers to pay employees for time spent volunteering for religious, charitable, civic, humanitarian, or similar non-profit organizations when such participation is truly voluntary. However, when charitable events or participation becomes intertwined with company activities, questions arise as to whether an employee may really decline to participate. Because of disparities in bargaining power, employees may feel pressure by employers to engage in charitable activities. Such pressure may even be overt. For example, a directive to all employees to participate in a “community day of service” – without any opportunity for an employee to opt out – suggests that participation is not voluntary. Subtle employer pressure – such as reassignment to undesirable tasks for non-participants during the time when others are volunteering – also raises issues.
Time spent working at the employer’s request, or under its direction or control, or for a charity related to the company or the company’s owner, is considered work time. The Department of Labor takes the position that when, at the behest of the employer, employees volunteer to do the same type of work that they perform as part of their normal work duties, the volunteer work must be included in the employees’ hours worked calculations.
Awards for FLSA violations generally include fee shifting. Consequently, an employer who runs afoul of the FLSA will be required to pay the employee’s legal fees. Even if the unpaid wages are small, the imposition of attorneys’ fees could result in a significant liability for an employer.
The key to avoiding FLSA liability is to ensure that employee participation is voluntary and to avoid any perception that an employee will be penalized if he or she fails to participate. It should be clear that the employees are volunteering their time to the third-party organization directly, not to the company itself. Employees volunteering in a capacity similar to their paid work—for example, an accounting firm encouraging its accountants to provide accounting services for a charity—is particularly problematic.
Observing the following guidelines may reduce risk of an FLSA violation:Utilizing these approaches may help to avoid FLSA liability or minimize liability if a claim does arise. We all want to start the holiday season on the right foot, and a methodical, cautious approach may be the only way that the good deeds of the employees do not result in repercussions for the employer.
- The charitable organization must be separate from the business and unrelated in a significant way to the business owners
- The charitable event does not result in direct economic benefit to the business
- The time spent at the organization or event is outside of regular working hours
- The company notices about a volunteer event or opportunity include a statement that the employees are not required to attend or participate
- Supervisors are not allowed to direct or control their employees’ participation
- Employees who choose not to participate in the event are not treated differently than employees who choose to participate